I tried to run ASP.NET MVC Web Application template on Windows server 2012 R2, using IIS 8. And then I faced some errors.
This post is about the errors I met and how I solved them.

1. Web browser hangs

I typed "localhost" into the address bar, and the chrome browser didn't finish loading.
This error was simply solved by rebooting the server.

2. 500.19 - Internal Server Error (0x80070005)

요청된 페이지와 관련된 구성 데이터가 잘못되어 해당 페이지에 액세스할 수 없습니다.
권한이 충분하지 않아 구성 파일을 읽을 수 없습니다.

Web app directory > Properties > Security > Give permisions(read, execute, etc.) to IIS_IUSRS & IUSR.
You could find more information about "IIS_IUSRS" and "IUSR" by searching.

3. 500.19 - Internal Server Error (0x80070021)

요청된 페이지와 관련된 구성 데이터가 잘못되어 해당 페이지에 액세스할 수 없습니다.
이 구성 섹션은 이 경로에서 사용할 수 없습니다. 섹션이 부모 수준에서 잠겨 있는 경우 이 오류가 발생합니다.

This error occurs because the MVC template overrides "system.webServer-modules" config section in the web.config file.

IIS 8.0 forbids overriding this config section implicitly, so we need to change it.
IIS > Server Name > Feature Delegation > Modules > Set Feature Delegation to "Read/Write"

Then the contents of "%windir%\system32\inetsrv\config\ApplicationHost.config" will be changed.
For more information, refer to 10 Things ASP.NET Developers Should Know About Web.config Inheritance and Overrides #2.

4. 403.14 - Forbidden (0x00000000)

웹 서버가 이 디렉터리의 내용을 표시하지 못하도록 구성되었습니다.

I solved this problem with installing
Roles > Web Server (IIS) > Appliation Development
 > .NET 4.5 Extensibility, Application Initialization, ASP.NET 4.5, ISAP Extensions, ISAPI Filters, WebSocket Protocol.
But it seems that some guys couldn't solve this error even after installing the roles.

I think there aren't enough documents about this errors yet, so write one for myself.
I hope this post helps you and a smart guy writes a good explanation of how to solve these problems, before long.