Hypens

compound words / connect prefixes and suffixes

ex.

twenty-four

mother-in-law

pro-American

pre-law

En dash

number ranges (no space)

ex.

1998–2000

pages 12–43

Dallas beat Washington 14–10

Mary Johnson (1984–)


Em dash (no space)

: abrupt shift in emphasis or direction

ex.

Eating broccoli hasn't killed anyone—yet.

A strong father figure in the home is essential—especially for opening jars.


: set off parenthetical material (to make something more noticeable)

ex.

The greatest modernist wriers—Eliot, Joyce, Woolf—were all very well-educated.

Jorge Luis Borges—who some have called "the greatest writer in the Spanish language"—published his first book of short stories.


: set off an introductory subject (or series of subjects)

ex.

Gluttony, lust, envy—which is the worst sin?

Donation—that was his ultimate goal.


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